JPEG – compressed quickly in the camera and result in the loss of detail and quality. They store as many images on the memory card as possible.
TIFF- usually uncompressed and offer the opportunity for extensive post-processing. They take up more space and offer the highest image quality level in the camera.
RAW – best option if you want to get the best file for your camera. When shooting in RAW the camera will make adjustments which are permanently embedded into your photos.
DNG- creates a standard raw file format across all manufacturers and cameras. Allows you to store your files for maximum security.
PNG- retain all digital detail and allow for partial or total transparency.
GIF- image quality is not sacrificed, and they maintain transparency and allow for animation.
BMP- large file sizes that save color data and provide a high-quality digital file.
PSD- allows for manipulation on specific individual layers rather than the main image itself. Gives it a greater flexibility and the ability to fine tune an image.
Automatic Mode- Tells your camera to select the best shutter speed, aperture and ISO to get the best shot. Gives you great results in any shooting condition.
Portrait mode- Automatically selects a large aperture which keeps the background out of focus to ensure that the subject is the only thing in focus. Works best when you’re photographing a single subject.
Macro Mode- Allows you to move in closer to your subject to get a close-up picture. Great for shooting small objects.
Landscape mode- Sets camera up with a small aperture to give the scene you’re photographing as much focus as possible. Ideal for capturing shots of wide scenes.
Sports mode- Ideal for photographing moving objects like people playing sports, pets, cars, etc. Attempts to freeze the action by increasing shutter speed.
Night mode- Works when shooting in low-light. Sets your camera to use a longer shutter speed and helps capture details of the background.
Movie mode- Extends your digital camera from capturing still images to capturing moving ones. The quality is not always the best.
Aperture priority mode- You chose the aperture and your camera chooses the rest of the settings. Useful when you are looking to control the depth of field in a shot.
Shutter priority- You select the shutter speed and your camera chooses the rest of the settings. When photographing moving subjects, you might want to choose a fast shutter speed to freeze the motion.
Program mode- Gives you control over flash, white balance, ISO, etc.
Manual mode- You have full control over your camera. Gives you the flexibility to set your shots up as you wish.
- Always focus on the eyes this will allow the lens to soften the skin.
- Shoot wide open for a shallow depth of field.
- Always shoot in RAW to be able to make edits.
- Shoot in the shade to capture the subjects natural features.
- Shoot on an overcast day for smooth and pleasing shadows.
- Lenses in the standard zoom range cover moderate wide angles.
- Standard zoom lenses are great “walk around” lenses
- Telephoto lenses compress distance making everything appear closer.
- Telephoto lenses are excellent for sports, nature and wildlife.
- Faster telephoto lenses have larger maximum apertures.
- A fast lens is usually one that has an aperture of f/4, f/2.8 or larger.
- Less expensive lens give you general apertures.
- More expensive lenses have a fixed aperture.
- Wide angle lenses give you a expansive view.
- Great lenses for landscape photos are 14mm f2/8n and 16-35 f/2.8
- Wide angle lenses should be used when foreground objects are there.
- Standard lenses range from 35mm up to 85mm.
- Prime lenses are just one focal length.
- Prime lens forces you to think about composition and point of view.
- Telephoto lenses are great for portraiture.
- Longer lenses are challenging to track movement.
- Macro lenses are good for shooting tiny things.
- Tilt-shift or perspective correction lenses are great for architecture.
- The cost on the lens depends on several things.
- All major lens manufacturers satisfy most budgets